Ecological imbalance has many origins: on the one hand, the
world population increase and the consequent need for food;
on the other hand, the exploding urbanization, which generates
marginal areas and uprooting; and finally, the speed of technological
advances and economic globalization. All of them are international
issues. Unfortunately, the results: desert encroachment, acid
rain, the ozone hole, pollution, soil and water contamination,
depletion of natural resource, structural poverty, etc. are
patrimony of the whole planet. Before this situation, the
Subsecretariat of Ecology is working in many aspects:
Application of the in force law as regards environmental
To promote the utilization of suitable technologies
allowing sustainable development
Boost the interchange and spread of information
To promote training and to generate spaces for communitary
To strengthen the proposal of an environmental culture
and the extremely importance of environmental education.
To discuss issues with critic spirit, by promoting
direct measures with all the sectors, for the protection,
conservation and defense of the environment.
To guard with great zeal the natural patrimony of the
province, paying attention to the ecological environment,
the correct utilization of resources and the preservation
of the biodiversity.
The new structure of the educational system of La
Pampa: the Federal Law of Education was enacted in 1993,
and in 1995 it was implemented a new educational system supported
by that law. The application of a compulsory ten-year program
of studies introduced the idea of a gradual and phasing-out
change in La Pampa. Thus, in 1996 it began the first stage
of the primary education (EGB) and in 1999, the third stage
was accomplished by the implementation of the ninth year.
As regards the Initial Level, La Pampa has already been implementing
it since 1986.
The Nucleated Kindergarten system (JIN), with 23 institutes,
improved the educational quality through family participation.
In 1999, the enrollment of the Initial Level amounted to 6,057
pupils. Perhaps the most important aspect of this undertaking
is the massive aspect of its implementation. Each provincial
school and each pampean pupil is part of this process, which
really makes a difference when considering that in other jurisdictions
of the country the changes are been partially implemented.
A new and important process of analysis and consulting was
carried at the subsequent stages to review their conditions.
This required the organization of meetings that nucleated
pampean locations. There was a major reason for that: to define
the localization of the Third Stage in each location. Therefore,
the educational policy for the Third Stage was defined by
bearing in mind the flexibility criteria of the meeting results.
Third Stage. The pampean implementation model:
the decision made on 1997 to conduct and materialize the implementation
of the Third Stage was questioned by teachers, who requested
an additional year for its application. But the pampean government
considered that in an increasingly difficult and changing
world, the delay would become a waste of time that the children
might claim in the future. In 1999, the compulsory program
for primary education was accomplished through the implementation
of the ninth year of EGB. This meant the consolidation of
the new compulsory structure of the educational system.
The results of the last National Operation for Education Quality
placed La Pampa Province in the third position in Mathematics
and Language for pupils at Third Stage of EGB.
Besides, during year 2000, it will start the Third Stage of
EGB for adults. Although there is no national regulation to
this respect, La Pampa Province accepts the challenge to extend
the primary education, which was until now completed at the
seventh year. Pursuant to Federal Education Law, from now
on, adults will accomplish their primary education program
with the ninth year.
Year 2000. Polymodal Stage, a new challenge:
as from 2000, the Polymodal Stage has been massively implemented
as targeted. This stage proposes a new concept in non-compulsory
education. Polymodal Stage provides the same educational and
social program for each student attending it. With just one
approach, it encompasses ethical and citizenship matters,
continuous education, and the training for a productive life.
Each institution offering the Polymodal Stage has some of
programs proposed in the Federal Education Law:
- Natural Sciences
- Economy and Business Administration
- Humanities and Social Sciences
- Commodity Production and Services
- Communication, Arts and Design
Furthermore, there are several schools for those adults wanting
to complete the former intermediate level (high school).
Tertiary Level: Teachers Training Institutes:
by Resolution Nº 931, enacted by the National Ministry
of Education and Culture, the degrees awarded for Teachers
Training programs conducted in Teachers Training Institutes
are officially valid. The approval decision comprises La Pampa
Province, which starts year 2000 implementing this new regulation.
Institutes offering theachers programs comprised in
the new framework of the educational system are the result
of a detailed and deliberated work, whose process goes back
to 1996. Today, La Pampa has five nationally-acknowledged
programs: EGB Teacher for the 1st and 2nd stage, Psychology
Teacher for EGB3 and Polymodal, Political Sciences Teacher
for EGB3, Visual Arts Teacher, and Physical Education Teacher
for any level and program of the system.
Upper Level: the University of La Pampa is
the academic center that concentrates the University Education
of La Pampa. It has colleges at Santa Rosa, General Pico,
Eduardo Castex, and General Acha. The Ministry of Culture
and Education of La Pampa has maintained a fluent dialog with
the authorities of the University of La Pampa, oriented towards
the implementation of the educational transformation process
in the province and the country, which also included the important
contributions that the University can make to develop such
La Pampa, 3rd in the National Operation for the
Evaluation of Educational Quality - ONE 99.
One of the paramount aspects in the educational transformation
process is the implementation of an evaluative culture, which
implies the utilization of evaluation as a tool inherent to
the learning service. This criterium, which must be as gradual
as any process of change, was introduced in La Pampa as the
component that supports the new educational and pedagogical
conceptions of educational transformation. By means of a permanent
process of evaluation we can find the best strategies to ensure
all students the learning opportunities they need.
The results obtained by the pampean students in the last National
Operation for the Evaluation of Educational Quality (ONE 99),
which show them placed in third position of the national grid,
indicate and weight teachers performance, and reflect
the commitment displayed by every player taking part in the
transformation process. It also reinforces the commitment
to improve the quality of education.
As per the results achieved in mathematics and language, la
Pampa is placed third among the best provinces for pupils
attending the seventh year. And it should be born in mind
that these results are obtained in a province whose educational
services are mainly public -more than 90 %. Besides, these
results were achieved in the stage showing the most serious
October 16: La
October 16 was established as La Pampa's Day through an Executive
Order-Agreement executed by the de facto government of the
vice-admiral Guozden, according to "the initiative of
the Center of Pampean Residents of Buenos Aires city."
In section 2, the executive order sets forth that "the
educational, cultural and diffusional institutions of the
Province shall organize the corresponding festivities in due
time". Section 3 says that "educational institutions
shall hold classes on History, Geography and other aspects
of the pampean reality during five working days prior to said
date, and shall conduct an allusive ceremony in the last class
hour on day 16." Regarding non-educational ceremonies
to be performed, "they shall be held on the subsequent
The Fauna of La Pampa Province has lately become a non-conventional
alternative to develop its economy, by either hunting, breeding
or including wild species to the stockbreeding-like exploitation.
Present operation: a) Commercial hunting: European hare. Total
use of fur, meat and skin. At present it is the most important
industry related to the wild fauna, because of the labor hired,
the electric power consumed and the input utilized from hunting
to export. Gray foxes are also hunted for commercial purposes.
b) Big hunting game: it comprises Red deers, Wild boars and
Pumas. Antelops, Ciervos dama (Lady deers) and
Axis deers, which can only be hunted in authorized game reserves.
c) Small hunting game. The following special species may be
hunted limited to seasons and number of specimens: Grey fox,
Small partridge and Perdiz del monte (partridge from the forest),
Viscachas, Armadillo, European hare, Paloma montera (dove
from the forest), Ringdove, Turkish dove, Duck, Loro Barranquero
(parrot from ravines) and Budgerigar. d) Non-traditional production:
1) Red deer Breeding: there are nine breeding farms in the
departments of Toay, Utracán, Catriló and Guatraché.
2) Entry and spreading of South American Domestic Camelids:
the Ministry of Production and C.F.I. started up this undertaking
at the Experimental Base located in Santa Isabel, by entering
105 white selected llamas coming from Jujuy Province. After
overcoming the adaptation period, the breeding of these species
has become extensive as they spread. At present, new by-products
are manufactured. 3) Rhea breeding farms: there are four plants
oriented to the production of meat, skin and feathers and
other by-products. 4) Chinchilla breeding farms: there are
ten registered farms, and the production is increasingly growing.
5) Some breeding farms for wild boars and red partridges are
There is also a campaign for the conservation of wild fauna
species through: A) Programs, oriented and/or aided by the
Agriculture Administration, which encompass: 1) Fast assessment
of European hares number of specimens. 2) Pampean carnivores
population Monitoring. B) Conservation: Promotion and Education.
About 70% of the pampean surface is covered by natural vegetation,
and the remaining 30% corresponds to crop areas (annual and
perennial). Pampean vegetation can be classified in four main
physiognomic types: 1. Open caduceus wood of "Caldén
(Prosopis caldenia)", 2. Natural pastureland, 3. Bushland
and 4. Underbushland.
The most characteristic woody species:
Caldén (prosopis Caldenia): is the main forestal resource
of the Province. At present, the caldén wood surface
can be estimated in 2,870,000 ha, and the useful surface amounts
to 750,000 ha. Traditional uses of caldén wood comprise
firewood, posts, sticks, long rods, timbers, coal, boards
for: floors (paving blocks, parquets, setts), furniture (rustic,
kitchen furniture, fine furniture), frames and trims of doors,
windows, louvers, thresholds, lintels, beehives, etc. The
industrial characteristics of this wood are:
Medium core durability against biological agents
Easy to dry
Easy to be painted
Easy to be nailed
Slightly hard to be worked with
Very good planishing acceptance
Very good polishing acceptance
Very good dimensional stability (one of the first ranked,
within domestic woods)
Very good hygroscopicity
As regards combustible value, the "leña campana"
(dried firewood) of caldén has a calorific power between
3,900 and 4,200 kcal/kg (higher than red bark). Caldén
coal has a calorific power of 7,458 kcal/kg.
Carob tree (Prosopis flexuosa): it is distributed together
with caldén, with which it is often confounded, and
exclusively in the north portion of the margins of the Atuel-Salado-Chadileuvú
fluvial system. It was utilized for furniture, artisanship,
firewood, posts, props and rods.
Piquillín (Condalia microphylia): although it is mostly
encountered in the caduceus wood, it is also distributed in
the central and southeastern bushland. It is chiefly used
as firewood, which is much valued due to its calorific power.
The fruits are utilized to make home jam (called in some places
syrup) and the wood is used in turning.
The pampean flora is very rich. We should mention aromatic
species like cedrón del monte or herb of
gilead and thyme, or medicinal plants like the té pampa
La Pampa has a mediterranean position.
North: at a latitude of 32º N (between
the meridians of 63º 23' and 65º 07' W)
South: Tripartite point shared with Buenos
Aires and Río Negro
East: at a longitude of 63º 23' W
(between parallels of 35º and 39º 11' S)
West: at a longitude of 68º 17' E
(between parallels of 36º and 36º 11' S).
Climate: temperate and semiarid. The northeastern
area shows the best levels of precipitation, plus good
soils and mild temperatures. Going eastward and southwards,
precipitation decreases and soil quality impoverishes.
Environmental conditions worsen in the West end.
Landforms: it should be mentioned that La Pampa province
is not a geological morphological, hydrological or climatic
unit. It shares different regions that belong to other provinces
too. We can distinguish four physiographic regions:
According to the census of May 15, 1991, La Pampa's population
was 260,034 inhabitants. This figure represents 0.8% of Argentina's
total. (at present, there are 300,000 inhabitants approx.).
In absolute values, in 1991 La Pampa's population was higher
than those of La Rioja, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego e
Islas del Atlántico Sur provinces. Between 1935/1991,
the population of La Pampa grew 48.52%. It can be observed
a strong growth in population during the first three decades
of the twentieth century. This trend varied during the intercensus
period"1935/1947". The maximum peak of depression
occurred in 1960 (year of least population). This process
reverted in the intercensus period 1960/1970, in which it
can be observed a sustained increase.
|Spatial distribution of population:
The most populated districts are Capital in the first
place with 30.9 inhab/km2 and Maracó in the second
place with 17.30 inhab/km2. The least populated districts
are Lihuel Calel with 0.05 inhab/km2, Chicalcó,
Limay Mahuida, and Curacó with 0.1 inhab/km2. The
most expulsive districts are Limay Mahuida and Lihuel
Calel, for the period 1980/1991 (this proportion decreased
in said districts with respect to 1980). The greatest
growth is shown in Capital, Maracó and Chapaleufú.
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